Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.20.4
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

NOTE 1. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES

Nature of Operations

Spirit of Texas Bancshares, Inc. (the “Company”) is a bank holding company headquartered in Conroe, Texas that provides, through its bank subsidiary, a variety of financial services to individuals and corporate customers in Texas, which are primarily agricultural, light industrial and commercial areas.

Risks and Uncertainties

 

COVID-19 Pandemic

 

In December 2019, a novel strain of coronavirus (“COVID-19”) was reported to have surfaced in Wuhan, China, and has since spread to a number of other countries, including the United States. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic and the United States declared a National Public Health Emergency. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the level of economic activity in the local, national and global economies and financial markets. During the first and second quarters of 2020, many businesses in Texas and many other states were temporarily closed due to social distancing and/or shelter in place orders. As of December 31, 2020, many of these businesses have been allowed to re-open at limited capacity; however, the Company and its customers continue to be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. The extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts the Company's business, results of operations, and financial condition, as well as its regulatory capital and liquidity ratios, is unknown at this time and will depend on future developments, including the scope and duration of the pandemic and actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to the pandemic. If the pandemic is sustained, it may further adversely impact the Company and impair the ability of the Company's customers to fulfill their contractual obligations to the Company. This could materially and adversely affect the Company’s business operations, asset valuations, financial condition, and results of operations. For additional risks related to the COVID-19 pandemic, see “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, the Company’s Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the periods ended March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020 and the Company’s other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).

 

In response to the pandemic, the President of the United States signed into law the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”). This legislation aims to provide relief for individuals and businesses that have been negatively impacted by the coronavirus pandemic. Section 4013 of the CARES Act provides financial institutions the opportunity to opt out of applying the “troubled debt restructuring” (“TDR”) accounting guidance in the Financial Accounting Standards Board’s (“FASB”) Accounting Standard Codification (“ASC”) 310-40 for certain loan modifications. Loan modifications made between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of i) 60 days after the end of the national emergency proclamation or ii) December 31, 2020. Section 541 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2021, amended Section 4013 of the CARES Act to extend this relief to the earlier of i) 60 days after the end of the national emergency proclamation or ii) January 1, 2022. A financial institution may elect to suspend GAAP only for a loan that was not more than 30 days past due as of December 31, 2019. The Bank adopted this provision.

 

Additionally, the CARES Act contains provisions that impact federal income taxes including but not limited to an extension to pay and file federal tax returns, bonus depreciation on qualified improvement property and the ability to carry back certain net operating losses to a prior year.  The Bank utilized the filing and payment extension and net operating loss carryback provisions. 

Basis of Presentation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company, and the accounts of its wholly-owned subsidiary, Spirit of Texas Bank, SSB (the “Bank”). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The accounting and financial reporting policies the Company follows conform, in all material respects, to U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and to general practices with the financial services industry.

The Company has evaluated subsequent events for potential recognition and/or disclosure through the date these consolidated financial statements were issued.

Use of Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could materially differ from those estimates.

Material estimates subject to significant change include the allowance for loan and lease losses, the expected cash flows and collateral values associated with impaired loans, the carrying value of other real estate owned (“OREO”), the fair value of financial instruments, including U.S. Small Business Administration (“SBA”) servicing assets, business combination fair value computations, the valuation of goodwill and other intangible assets, stock-based compensation and deferred income tax assets.

Significant Group Concentrations of Credit Risk

Most of the Company’s activities are with customers located within Texas. “Note 4. Investment Securities” discusses the types of investment securities in which the Company invests. “Note 5. Loans, net” discusses the types of lending that the Company engages in as well as loan concentrations. The Company does not have a significant concentration of credit risk with any one customer.

 

Fair Value Measurement

The Company uses estimates of fair value in applying various accounting standards for its consolidated financial statements on either a recurring or non-recurring basis. Fair value is defined as the price to sell an asset or transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between willing and able market participants. The Company groups its assets and liabilities measured at fair value in three hierarchy levels, based on the observability and transparency of the inputs. These levels are as follows:

Level 1—Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical assets or liabilities;

Level 2—Observable inputs other than level 1 inputs, including quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities, quoted prices for identical assets and liabilities in less active markets and other inputs that can be corroborated by observable market data; and

Level 3—Unobservable inputs supported by limited or no market activity or data and inputs requiring significant management judgment or estimation; valuation techniques utilizing level 3 inputs include option pricing models, discounted cash flow models and similar techniques.

In certain cases, the inputs used to measure fair value may fall into different levels of the fair value hierarchy. In such cases, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the fair value measurement in its entirety falls has been determined based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. It is the Company’s policy to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs in estimating fair value. Unobservable inputs are utilized in determining fair value estimates only to the extent that observable inputs are not available. The need to use unobservable inputs generally results from a lack of market liquidity and trading volume. Transfers between levels of fair value hierarchy are recorded at the end of the reporting period.

Transfers of Financial Assets

The Company accounts for the transfers and servicing of financial assets in accordance with ASC 860, “Accounting for Transfers and Servicing of Financial Assets and Extinguishment of Liabilities”. Transfers of financial assets are accounted for as sales, when control over the assets has been surrendered. Control over transferred assets is deemed to be surrendered when (1) the assets have been isolated from the Company, (2) the transferee obtains the right (free of conditions that constrain it from taking advantage of that right) to pledge or exchange the transferred assets, and (3) the Company does not maintain effective control over the transferred assets through an agreement to repurchase them before their maturity.

A servicing asset related to SBA loans is initially recorded when these loans are sold and the servicing rights are retained. The Company has elected the fair value method to subsequently measure retained servicing rights. An updated fair value of the servicing asset is obtained from an independent third party on a quarterly basis and any necessary adjustments are included in SBA loan servicing fees on the consolidated statement of income. The valuation begins with the projection of future cash flows for each asset based on their unique characteristics, our market-based assumptions for prepayment speeds and estimated losses and recoveries. The present value of the future cash flows are then calculated utilizing our market-based discount ratio assumptions. In all cases, the Company models expected payments for every loan for each quarterly period in order to create the most detailed cash flow stream possible.

The Company uses various assumptions and estimates in determining the impairment of the SBA servicing asset. These assumptions include prepayment speeds and discount rates commensurate with the risks involved and comparable to assumptions used by participants to value and bid servicing rights available for sale in the market.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

For the purpose of presentation in the financial statements of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents are defined as those amounts included in the balance sheet captions “cash and due from banks”, “interest-bearing deposits in other banks”, and “federal funds sold.” Generally, federal funds are purchased and sold for one day periods. The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The majority of cash and cash equivalents of the Company are maintained with major financial institutions in the United States. As such, interest-bearing, non-transaction account deposits with these financial institutions may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits; however, these deposits typically may be redeemed upon demand and therefore, bear minimal risk. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) insurance coverage is $250 thousand. The Company periodically evaluates the stability of the financial institutions with which it has deposits, and believes the risk of any potential credit loss is minimal.  It was announced on March 15, 2020 that effective March 26, 2020 the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (the “FRB”) would reduce the regulatory reserve requirement to zero percent, therefore, the Company did not have any cash on hand or on deposit with the FRB as of December 31, 2020.  The Company did have $61.6 million of cash on hand or on deposit with the FRB to meet regulatory reserve requirements as of December 31, 2019.

Debt Investment Securities

The Company determines the classification of investment securities at the time of purchase. If the Company has the intent and the ability at the time of purchase to hold debt securities until maturity, they are classified as held-to-maturity. Investment securities held-to-maturity are stated at amortized cost. Debt securities the Company does not intend to hold to maturity are classified as available for sale and carried at estimated fair value with unrealized gains or losses reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), net of applicable income taxes. Available for sale securities are a part of the Company’s asset/liability management strategy and may be sold in response to changes in interest rates, prepayment risk or other market factors. Management has elected to reclassify realized gains and losses from accumulated other comprehensive income when securities are sold on the trade date.

Interest income and dividends on securities are recognized in interest income on an accrual basis. Premiums and discounts on debt securities are amortized as an adjustment to interest income over the period to maturity of the related security using the effective interest method. Realized gains or losses on the sale of securities are determined using the specific identification method.

The Company reviews investment securities for impairment on a quarterly basis or more frequently if events and circumstances warrant. In order to determine if a decline in fair value below amortized cost represents other-than-temporary impairment (“OTTI”), management considers several factors, including but not limited to, the length of time and extent to which the fair value has been less than the amortized cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the issuer (considering factors such as adverse conditions specific to the issuer and the security and ratings agency actions) and the Company’s intent and ability to retain the investment in order to allow for an anticipated recovery in fair value.

The Company recognizes OTTI of a debt security for which there has been a decline in fair value below amortized cost if (i) management intends to sell the security, (ii) it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis, or (iii) the Company does not expect to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security. The amount by which amortized cost exceeds the fair value of a debt security that is considered to have OTTI is separated into a component representing the credit loss, which is recognized in earnings, and a component related to all other factors, which is recognized in other comprehensive income (loss). The measurement of the credit loss component is equal to the difference between the debt security’s amortized cost basis and the present value of its expected future cash flows discounted at the security’s effective yield. If the Company intends to sell the security, or if it is more likely than not it will be required to sell the security before recovery, an OTTI write-down is recognized in earnings equal to the entire difference between the amortized cost basis and fair value of the security.

Marketable Equity Securities

The Company purchased mutual funds in fourth quarter of 2020 which are classified as marketable equity securities. As of December 31, 2020, marketable equity securities with a fair value of $24 million were recorded within equity investments on the consolidated balance sheet with changes in the fair value recorded through other noninterest income.

Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) and Independent BankersBank (“TIB”) Stock

The Bank is a member of the FHLB and the TIB and is required to maintain an investment in the stock of the FHLB and TIB. No market exists for these stocks, and the Bank’s investment can be liquidated only through redemption by the FHLB or TIB, at the discretion of and subject to conditions imposed by the FHLB and TIB. Historically, FHLB and TIB stock redemptions have been at cost (par value), which equals the Company’s carrying value. The Company monitors its investment in FHLB and TIB stock for impairment through review of recent financial results of the FHLB and TIB including capital adequacy and liquidity position, dividend payment history, redemption history and information from credit agencies. The Company has not identified any indicators of impairment of FHLB or TIB stock.

Loans Held for Sale

Loans held for sale consist of the guaranteed portion of SBA loans that the Company intends to sell after origination and are reflected at the lower of aggregate cost or fair value.

Loans Held for Investment

Loans that management has the intent and ability to hold for the foreseeable future are reported at their outstanding principal balances net of any allowance for loan and lease losses, unamortized deferred fees and costs and unamortized premiums or discounts. The net amount of nonrefundable loan origination fees and certain direct costs associated with the lending process are deferred and amortized to interest income over the contractual lives of the loans using methods which approximate the level yield method. Discounts and premiums are amortized or accreted to interest income over the estimated term of the loans using methods that approximate the level yield method. Interest income on loans is accrued based on the unpaid principal balance outstanding and the contractual terms of the loan agreements.

Acquired loans are recorded at their estimated fair value as of the acquisition date and subsequently accounted for under ASC 310-20, “Receivables – Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs”. The fair value discount is accreted using methods which approximate the level yield method over the remaining term of the loans and is recognized as a component of interest income.

A substantial portion of the loan portfolio is comprised of commercial and real estate loans throughout Texas. The ability of the Company’s debtors to honor their contracts is dependent upon the general economic conditions of this area.

The loans held for investment portfolio is segmented into commercial and industrial loans, 1-4 single family residential loans (including home equity loans), construction, land and development loans, commercial real estate loans, consumer loans and leases, and municipal and other loans. Commercial and industrial loans are underwritten after evaluating and understanding the borrower’s ability to repay the loan through operating profitably and effectively growing its business. The Company’s management examines current and projected cash flows to determine the ability of the borrower to repay their obligations as agreed. Commercial loans are primarily made based on the credit quality and cash flows of the borrower and secondarily on the underlying collateral provided by the borrower. The cash flows of borrowers, however, may not be as expected and the collateral securing these loans may fluctuate in value. Most commercial loans are secured by the assets being financed or other business assets such as accounts receivable or inventory and may incorporate a personal guarantee to add strength to the credit and reduce the risk on a transaction to an acceptable level; however, some short-term loans may be made on an unsecured basis to the most credit worthy borrowers.  Commercial loans also include loans originated under the Paycheck Protection Program and Main Street Lending Program.  These loans are underwritten and originated in accordance with program guidelines.

Commercial real estate loans and 1-4 family single family residential loans are subject to underwriting standards and processes similar to commercial loans. Commercial real estate lending typically involves higher loan principal amounts and the repayment of these loans is generally largely dependent on the successful operation of the property securing the loan or the business conducted on the property securing the loan.

With respect to loans to developers and builders, the Company generally requires the borrower to have a proven record of success and an expertise in the building industry. Construction, land and development loans are underwritten utilizing feasibility studies, independent appraisal reviews, sensitivity analysis of absorption and lease rates and financial analysis of the developers and property owners. Construction, land and development loans are generally based upon estimates of costs and value associated with the complete project. These estimates may be inaccurate. Construction, land and development loans often involve the disbursement of substantial funds with repayment substantially dependent on the success of the ultimate project.

The Company’s non-real estate consumer loans and leases are based on the borrower’s proven earning capacity over the term of the loan. The Company monitors payment performance periodically for consumer loans to identify any deterioration in the borrower’s financial strength. To monitor and manage consumer loan risk, policies and procedures are developed and modified, as needed, jointly by management and staff. This activity, coupled with a relatively small volume of consumer loans, minimizes risk.

Municipal and other loans are comprised of loans to municipalities and emergency service, hospital and school districts primarily throughout Texas. The majority of these loans have tax or revenue pledges and in some cases are additionally supported by collateral. Municipal loans made without a direct pledge of taxes or revenues are usually made based on some type of collateral that represents an essential service.

SBA Lending Activities

The Bank originates loans to customers in the State of Texas and throughout the United States under an SBA program that generally provides for SBA guarantees of between 75 percent and 85 percent of each loan. The Bank routinely sells the guaranteed portion of its SBA loans to a third party and retains the servicing, holding the nonguaranteed portion in its portfolio. When the guaranteed portion of an SBA loan is sold, the premium received on the sale and the present value of future cash flows of the servicing assets are recognized in income. SBA servicing assets are recognized separately when rights are acquired through the sale of SBA guaranteed portion. These servicing rights are initially measured at fair value at the date of sale and included in the gain on sale. Updated fair values are obtained from an independent third party on a quarterly basis and adjustments are presented in SBA loan servicing fees on the consolidated statements of income. To determine the fair value of SBA Servicing Rights, the Bank uses market prices for comparable servicing contracts, when available, or alternatively, uses a valuation model that calculates the present value of estimated future net servicing income.

In using this valuation method, the Bank incorporates assumptions that market participants would use in estimating future net servicing income, which includes estimates of the cost to service, the discount rate, custodial earnings rate, an inflation rate, ancillary income, prepayment speeds, default rates, late fees and losses. Serviced loans sold to others are not included in the accompanying balance sheet. Income (losses) and fees collected for loan servicing are included in SBA loan servicing fees in the consolidated statements of income.

Nonaccrual Loans

The Company classifies loans as past due when the payment of principal or interest is greater than 30 days delinquent based on the contractual next payment due date. The Company’s policies related to when loans are placed on nonaccrual status conform to guidelines prescribed by regulatory authorities. Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when it is probable that principal or interest is not fully collectible, or generally when principal or interest becomes 90 days past due, whichever occurs first. When loans are placed on nonaccrual status, interest receivable is reversed against interest income in the current period and amortization of any discount ceases. Interest payments received thereafter are applied as a reduction to the remaining principal balance unless management believes that the ultimate collection of the principal is likely, in which case payments are recognized in earnings on a cash basis. Loans are removed from nonaccrual status when they become current as to both principal and interest and the collectability of principal and interest is no longer doubtful.

Generally, a nonaccrual loan that is restructured remains on nonaccrual for a period of six months to demonstrate the borrower can meet the restructured terms. However, performance prior to the restructuring, or significant events that coincide with the restructuring, are considered in assessing whether the borrower can meet the new terms and may result in the loan being returned to accrual status after a shorter performance period. If the borrower’s ability to meet the revised payment schedule is not reasonably assured, the loan remains classified as a nonaccrual loan.

Troubled Debt Restructurings (TDR)

In certain situations due to economic or legal reasons related to a borrower’s financial difficulties, the Company may grant a concession to the borrower for other than an insignificant period of time that it would not otherwise consider. At that time, the related loan is classified as a TDR and considered impaired. The concessions granted may include rate reductions, principal forgiveness, payment forbearance, extensions of maturity at rates of interest below those commensurate with the risk profile of the borrower, and other actions intended to minimize economic loss. A troubled debt restructured loan is generally placed on nonaccrual status at the time of the modification unless the borrower has no history of missed payments for six months prior to the restructuring. If the borrower performs pursuant to the modified loan terms for at least six months and the remaining loan balance is considered collectible, the loan is returned to accrual status.

Section 4013 of the CARES Act provides financial institutions the opportunity to opt out of applying the TDR accounting guidance in ASC 310-40 for certain loan modifications. Loan modifications made between March 1, 2020 and the earlier of i) 60 days after the end of the national emergency proclamation or ii) December 31, 2020. Section 541 of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2021, amended Section 4013 of the CARES Act to extend this relief to the earlier of i) 60 days after the end of the national emergency proclamation or ii) January 1, 2022.

 

Impaired Loans

Loans are considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Company will be unable to collect the scheduled payments of principal or interest when due, according to the contractual terms of the loan agreements. All impaired loans are reviewed individually for specific reserves on a quarterly basis.

Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses

The allowance for loan losses is a reserve established through a provision for loan losses charged to expense, which represents management’s best estimate of probable losses that have been incurred within the existing portfolio of loans. The allowance, in the judgment of management, is necessary to reserve for estimated loan losses and risks inherent in the loan portfolio. The Company’s allowance for loan loss methodology includes allowance allocations calculated in accordance with ASC Topic 310, “Receivables” and allowance allocations calculated in accordance with ASC Topic 450, “Contingencies.” Accordingly, the methodology is based on historical loss experience by type of credit and internal risk grade, changes in the composition and volume of the portfolio, and specific loss allocations, with adjustments for current events and conditions. The Company’s process for determining the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses is designated to account for credit deterioration as it occurs.

The provision for loan losses reflects management’s periodic evaluation of individual loans and changes to the required allowance for specific loans, economic factors, past loan loss experience, loan quality trends, including the levels of and trends related to nonaccrual loans, past due loans, potential problem loans, criticized loans and net charge-offs or recoveries, among other factors.

The level of the allowance reflects management’s continuing evaluation of industry concentrations, specific credit risks, loan loss experience, current loan portfolio quality, present economic, political and regulatory conditions and unidentified losses inherent in the current loan portfolio. Portions of the allowance may be allocated for specific credits; however, the entire allowance is available for any credit that, in management’s judgment, should be charged-off. While management utilizes its best judgment and information available, the ultimate adequacy of the allowance is dependent upon a variety of factors beyond the Company’s control, including, among other things, the performance of the Company’s loan portfolio, the economy, changes in interest rates and the view of the regulatory authorities toward loan classifications.

The Company’s allowance for loan losses consists of three elements: (i) specific valuation allowances determined in accordance with ASC Topic 310 based on probable losses on specific loans; (ii) historical valuation allowances determined in accordance with ASC Topic 450 based on historical loan loss experience for similar loans with similar characteristics and trends, adjusted, as necessary, to reflect the impact of current conditions; and (iii) general valuation allowances determined in accordance with ASC Topic 450 based on general economic conditions and other qualitative risk factors both internal and external to the Company.

The allowances established for probable losses on specific loans are based on a regular analysis and evaluation of impaired loans. Loans are classified based on an internal credit risk grading process that evaluates, among other things: (i) the borrower’s ability to repay; (ii) the underlying collateral, if any; and (iii) the economic environment and industry in which the borrower operates. The initial analysis is performed by the relationship manager and credit rating is reviewed and approved by the Chief Credit Officer, Deputy Chief Credit Officer or the Bank’s President.

Specific valuation allowances are established when the discounted cash flows (or collateral value or observable market price) of an impaired loan is lower than the carrying value of that loan. Historical valuation allowances are calculated based on the historical loss experience of specific types of loans and the internal risk grade of such loans at the time they were charged-off. The Company derives historical loss rates from historical probability of default and loss given default, using a rolling five years of data. The historical loss rates are periodically updated based on actual charge-off experience.

The allowance calculation methodology includes further segregation of loan classes into risk rating categories. The borrower’s overall financial condition, repayment sources, guarantors and value of collateral, if appropriate, are evaluated annually for commercial loans or when credit deficiencies arise, such as delinquent loan payments, for commercial and consumer loans. Credit quality risk ratings include regulatory classifications of special mention, substandard, doubtful and loss. Loans classified special mention have potential weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention. If uncorrected, the potential weaknesses may result in deterioration of the repayment prospects. Loans classified substandard have a well-defined weakness or weaknesses that jeopardize the liquidation of the debt. They include loans that are inadequately protected by the current sound net worth and paying capacity of the obligor or of the collateral pledged, if any. Loans classified doubtful have all the weaknesses inherent in loans classified substandard with the added characteristic that collection or liquidation in full, on the basis of current conditions and facts, is highly improbable. Loans classified as a loss are considered uncollectible and are charged to the allowance for loan losses. Loans not classified are rated pass.

In general, valuation allowances are determined by evaluating, among other things: (i) the experience, ability and effectiveness of the Company’s lending management and staff; (ii) the effectiveness of the Company’s loan policies, procedures and internal controls; (iii) changes in asset quality; (iv) changes in nature and loan portfolio volume; (v) the composition and concentrations of credit; (vi) the effectiveness of the loan review function; (vii) the impact of national and local economic business conditions; and (viii) the impact of external factors, such as competition or legal and regulatory requirements. The results are then input into a “general allocation matrix” to determine an appropriate general valuation allowance. Loan losses are charged-off in the period the loans, or portions thereof, are deemed uncollectible. Generally, the Company will record a loan charge-off (including a partial charge-off) to reduce a loan to the estimated fair value of the underlying collateral, less costs to sell, for collateral

dependent loans. Subsequent recoveries, if any, are credited to the allowance for loan and lease losses. Management regularly reviews the loan portfolio and makes adjustments for loan losses, in order to maintain the allowance for loan and lease losses in accordance with GAAP.

Premises and Equipment

Premises and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation or amortization. Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the related assets, except for land which is stated at cost. The useful lives of premises and equipment are: 30 to 40 years for bank premises; 3 to 5 years for computer equipment; and 5 to 10 years for furniture and equipment.

Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the lesser of the lease terms, including certain renewals that were deemed probable at lease inception, or the estimated useful lives of the improvements. Purchased software and external direct costs of computer software developed for internal use are capitalized provided certain criteria are met and amortized over the useful lives of the software. Rent expense and rental income on operating leases are recorded using the straight-line method over the appropriate lease terms.

The Bank reviews the carrying value of long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangibles for impairment whenever events and changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, as prescribed by ASC Topic 360, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets”.

OREO and Repossessed Assets

Real estate properties acquired through, or in lieu of, loan foreclosure are held for sale and are initially recorded at their fair value less estimated disposition costs. When such assets are acquired, any shortfall between the loan carrying value and the estimated fair value of the underlying collateral less disposition costs is recorded as an adjustment to the allowance for loan and lease losses while any excess is recognized in income. The Company periodically performs a valuation of the property held; any excess of carrying value over fair value less disposition costs is charged to earnings as impairment. Routine maintenance and real estate taxes are expensed as incurred.

Bank Owned Life Insurance (“BOLI”)

The Bank owns life insurance policies on certain key, active employees and former directors. These policies are recorded at the amount that can be realized under the insurance contract at the balance sheet date, which is the cash surrender value adjusted for other charges or other amounts due that are probable at settlement, if applicable. Increases in the cash surrender value of these policies are included in noninterest income in the Consolidated Statements of Income. The Company’s BOLI policies are invested in general account and hybrid account products that have been underwritten by highly-rated third party insurance carriers.

Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the underlying fair value of merged entities. We assess goodwill for impairment annually as of December 31 of each year. The Company has one reporting unit, community banking, which includes the Bank, the Company’s wholly-owned banking subsidiary. If certain events occur which indicate goodwill might be impaired between annual tests, goodwill must be tested when such events occur. In making this assessment, we consider a number of factors including operating results, business plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows, current market data, etc. There are inherent uncertainties related to these factors and our judgment in applying them to the analysis of goodwill impairment. Changes in economic and operating conditions could result in goodwill impairment in future periods. The Bank did not identify any impairment on its outstanding goodwill from its most recent testing which was performed as of December 31, 2020. Core deposit intangible (“CDI”) is a measure of the value of checking and savings deposit relationships acquired in a business combination. The fair value of the CDI stemming from any given business combination is based on the present value of the expected cost savings attributable to the core deposit funding relative to an alternative source of funding. CDI is amortized over the estimated useful lives of the existing deposit relationships acquired, but does not exceed 12 years. Significantly all CDI is amortized using the sum of the years digits method. The Company evaluates such identifiable intangibles for impairment when events and circumstances indicate that its carrying amount may not be recoverable. If

an impairment loss is determined to exist, the loss is reflected as an impairment charge in the Consolidated Statements of Income for the period in which such impairment is identified. No impairment charges were required to be recorded for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 or 2018.

Comprehensive Income

The Company presents as a component of comprehensive income the amounts from transactions and other events, which currently are excluded from the consolidated statements of income and are recorded directly to shareholders’ equity. These amounts consist of unrealized holding gains (losses) on available for sale securities.

 

Income Taxes

Income tax expense is determined using the asset and liability method and consists of income taxes that are currently payable and deferred income taxes. Deferred income tax expense (benefit) is determined by recognizing deferred tax assets and liabilities for future tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates that are expected to apply to taxable income in years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Changes in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.

A valuation allowance is established for deferred tax assets when management determines that it is more likely than not that some portion or all of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. In making such determinations, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence that may impact the realization of deferred tax assets. These considerations include future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, projected future taxable income, and available tax planning strategies.

The Company files a consolidated federal income tax return including the results of its wholly owned subsidiary, the Bank. The Company estimates income taxes payable based on the amount it expects to owe the various tax authorities (i.e., federal and state). Income taxes represent the net estimated amount due to, or to be received from, such tax authorities. In estimating income taxes, management assesses the relative merits and risks of the appropriate tax treatment of transactions, taking into account statutory, judicial, and regulatory guidance in the context of the Company’s tax position. Although the Company uses the best available information to record income taxes, underlying estimates and assumptions can change over time as a result of unanticipated events or circumstances such as changes in tax laws and judicial guidance influencing its overall tax position.

An uncertain tax position is recognized only if it is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation process, based on the technical merits of the position. The amount of tax benefit recognized in the financial statements is the largest amount of benefit that is more than fifty percent likely to be sustained upon ultimate settlement of the uncertain tax position. If the initial assessment fails to result in recognition of a tax benefit, the Company subsequently recognizes a tax benefit if there are changes in tax law or case law that raise the likelihood of prevailing on the technical merits of the position to more-likely-than-not, the statute of limitations expires, or there is a completion of an examination resulting in a settlement of that tax year or position with the appropriate agency.

Management has analyzed the tax positions taken by the Company, and did not identify any uncertain tax positions at December 31, 2020.   The Company’s policy is to classify interest and penalties associated with income taxes within other expenses. The Company did not record any interest and penalties for the year ended December 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019.  The Company recorded interest and penalties of $23 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2018.  

The Company is subject to routine audits by taxing jurisdictions; however, there are currently no audits in progress for any tax periods. Management believes it is no longer subject to income tax examinations for years prior to 2017.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

The Company enters into contractual loan commitments to extend credit, normally with fixed expiration dates or termination clauses, at specified rates and for specific purposes. Since a portion of the commitments are expected to expire without being drawn upon, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements. Substantially all of the commitments to extend credit are contingent upon customers maintaining specific credit standards until the time of loan funding. The Company decreases its exposure to loss under these commitments by subjecting them to credit approval and monitoring procedures.

Standby letters of credit are written conditional commitments issued by the Company to guarantee the performance of a customer to a third party. In the event the customer does not perform in accordance with the terms of the agreement with the third party, the Company would be required to fund the commitment. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make is represented by the contractual amount of the commitment. If the commitment is funded, the Company would be entitled to seek recovery from the customer. The Company’s policies generally require that standby letter of credit arrangements contain security and debt covenants similar to those contained in loan agreements.

Stock-based Compensation

The Company sponsors equity incentive plans established in 2008 (the “2008 Stock Plan”) and in 2017 (the “2017 Stock Plan”) under which, among other things, stock options may be granted periodically to all full-time employees and directors of the Company or its affiliates at a specific exercise price to acquire shares of the Company’s common stock. Additionally, under the 2017 Stock Plan, the Company issues restricted stock units. Shares underlying the equity awards are issued out of authorized unissued common shares. Compensation cost is measured based on the estimated fair value of the award at the grant date and is recognized in earnings on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. The fair value of stock options is estimated at the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. This model requires assumptions as to the expected stock volatility, dividends, terms and risk-free rates. The expected volatility is based on the combination of the Company’s historical volatility and the volatility of comparable peer banks. The expected term represents the period of time that options are expected to be outstanding from the grant date. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant for the appropriate life of each stock option. The fair value of restricted stock units granted is calculated as the number of restricted stock units granted multiplied by the stock price on the date of grant.

Earnings per Common Share

The Company presents basic and diluted earnings per common share (“EPS”) data for its common stock. Basic EPS is calculated by dividing the net income attributable to shareholders of the Company by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS is determined by adjusting the profit or loss attributable to shareholders and the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential common shares comprised of options granted, restricted stock units awarded, and warrants. Potential common stock equivalents that have been issued by the Company related to outstanding stock options and warrants are determined using the treasury stock method. As of December 31, 2020 only one class of warrants is outstanding related to the Oasis acquisition.

The Company’s Series A Preferred stock are considered participating securities under ASC 260, “Earnings Per Share”, which means the security may participate in undistributed earnings with common stock. The holders of the Series A Preferred Stock would be entitled to share in dividends, on an as-converted basis, if the holders of common stock were to receive dividends, other than dividends in the form of common stock. In accordance with ASC 260, a company is required to use the two-class method when computing EPS when a company has a security that qualifies as a “participating security.” The two-class method is an earnings allocation formula that determines EPS for each class of common stock and participating security according to dividends declared (or accumulated) and participation rights in undistributed earnings. In determining the amount of net earnings to allocate to common stock holders, earnings are allocated to both common and participating securities based on their respective weighted-average shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS for the Company’s common stock is computed using the more dilutive of the two-class method or the if-converted method.

Treasury Stock

Common stock held in treasury is accounted for using the cost method, which treats stock held in treasury as a reduction to total stockholders’ equity. During the year ended December 31, 2020 the Company repurchased 1,233,739 shares of common stock at an average price per share of $12.93. The shares may be purchased in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions from time to time depending upon the market conditions and other factors over a one-year period or such longer period of time as may be necessary to complete such repurchases.

Derivative Financial Instruments

The Company offers certain derivative products directly to qualified commercial lending clients seeking to manage their interest rate risk.  The Company economically hedges interest rate swap transactions to execute with commercial lending clients by entering into offsetting interest rate swap transactions with institutional derivatives market participants.  Derivative transactions executed as part of this program are not designed as qualifying hedging relationships and are, therefore, carried at fair value with the change in fair value recorded as noninterest income.  Because these derivatives have mirror-image contractual terms, in additional to collateral provisions which mitigate the impact of non-performance risk, the changers in fair value are expected to substantially offset.

Segment Reporting

The Company operates in one reportable segment of business, community banking, which includes the Bank, the Company’s wholly-owned banking subsidiary. Through the Bank, the Company provides a broad range of retail and commercial banking services. Management makes operating decisions and assesses performance based on an ongoing review of these banking operations, which constitute the Company’s only operating segment.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

ASU 2021-01, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848) – Issued in January 2021, Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2021-01 clarifies the scope of Topic 848 so that derivatives affected by the discounting transition are explicitly eligible for certain optional expedients and exceptions in Topic 848.  The Update additionally clarified that a receive-variable-rate, pay-variable-rate cross-currency interest rate swap may be considered an eligible hedging instrument in a net investment hedge if both legs of the swap do not have the same repricing intervals and dates as a result of reference rate reform.  ASU 2021-01 was effective upon issuance and generally can be applied through December 31, 2022.  See the discussion regarding the adoption of ASU 2020-04 below.

ASU 2020-06, “Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40)” – Issued in August 2020, Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2020-06 addresses accounting complexities regarding convertible debt instruments and the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity.  The ASU reduces the number of available accounting models for convertible debt instruments in an attempt to reduce complexity and variation in practice.  Additionally, the ASU improves the applicability of the derivatives scope exception for contracts in an entity’s own equity by clarifying settlement guidance and balance sheet classification.  ASU 2020-06 is effective for public entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021 and for and for all other entities in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023.  Management does not believe adoption of this ASU will have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements given that the Company does not currently hold any convertible debt instruments or any in-scope derivative contracts.

ASU 2020-04, “Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting” – Issued in March 2020, ASU No. 2020-04 provides optional expedients and exceptions for accounting related to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions affected by reference rate reform if certain criteria are met. ASU 2020-04 applies only to contracts, hedging relationships and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued because of reference rate reform and do not apply to contract modifications made and hedging relationships entered into or evaluated after December 31, 2022, except for hedging relationships existing as of December 31, 2022, that an entity has elected certain optional expedients for and that are retained through the end of the hedging relationship.  ASU 2020-04 was effective upon

issuance and generally can be applied through December 31, 2022.  The adoption of ASU 2020-04 did not significantly impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

ASU 2019-11, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses:  Codification Improvements Topic 326” – Issued in November 2019, Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2019-11 clarifies and addresses specific issues about certain aspects of the amendments in ASU 2016-13.  For the Company, the provisions of this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 including interim periods within those fiscal years.  See the discussions regarding the adoption of ASU 2016-13 below.

ASU 2019-10, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842)” – Issued in November 2019, ASU No. 2019-10 addresses the change in philosophy to the effective dates including amendments issued after the issuance of the original ASUs.  See the discussions regarding the adoption of ASU 2016-13 and ASU 2016-02 below.

ASU 2019-04, “Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging, and Topic 825, Financial Instruments” – Issued in April 2019, ASU No. 2019-04 clarifies a number of issues discussed at the June 2018 and November 2018 Credit Losses Transition Resource Group meetings.  The clarifications address a variety of identified issues including but not limited to the treatment of accrued interest receivable as it relates to the allowance for credit losses, transfers between loan classifications and categories, recoveries, and using projections of future interest rate environments in expected cash flow calculations.  Management is evaluating these clarifications concurrently with our assessment of ASU 2016-13.

ASU 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement Disclosure Framework” – Issued in August 2018, ASU No. 2018-13 modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements outlined in Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements.  Specifically the amendments in the ASU remove the requirements to disclose the amount and reasons for transfers between fair value hierarchy levels, the policy for timing of transfers between levels, the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements, and for nonpublic entities, disclosure of the changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in earnings for recurring Level 3 fair value measurements.  Additionally, the ASU adds disclosure requirements regarding changes in unrealized gains and losses for the period included in other comprehensive income related to Level 3 fair value measurements, and disclosure of the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements.  The amendments of ASU 2018-13 are effective for all entities for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019.  Management adopted the provisions of this ASU removing fair value disclosure requirements as of December 31, 2018 as early adoption of the removal provisions was allowed and  adopted the remaining provisions of the ASU as of January 1, 2020.  The adoption of the remaining provisions within ASU 2018-13 did not significantly impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

ASU 2017-04, “Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment.” Issued in January 2017, ASU 2017-04 simplifies the manner in which an entity is required to test goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Step 2 measures a goodwill impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill with the carrying amount of that goodwill. In computing the implied fair value of goodwill under Step 2, an entity, prior to the amendments in ASU 2017-04, had to perform procedures to determine the fair value at the impairment testing date of its assets and liabilities, including unrecognized assets and liabilities, in accordance with the procedure that would be required in determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination. However, under the amendments in ASU 2017-04, an entity should (1) perform its annual or interim goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, and (2) recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value, with the understanding that the loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. Additionally, ASU 2017-04 removes the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails such qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. ASU 2017-04 is effective prospectively for public entities for annual, or any interim, goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 and for all other entities for impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Management adopted this ASU using the public company effective date as early adoption was permitted. The adoption of ASU 2017-04 did not significantly impact the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.” Issued in June 2016, ASU 2016-13 will add FASB ASC Topic 326, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses,” and finalizes amendments to FASB ASC Subtopic 825-15, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses.” The amendments of ASU 2016-13 are intended to provide financial statement users with more decision-useful information related to expected credit losses on financial instruments and other commitments to extend credit by replacing the current incurred loss impairment methodology with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to determine credit loss estimates. The amendments of ASU 2016-13 eliminate the probable initial recognition threshold and, in turn, reflect an entity’s current estimate of all expected credit losses. ASU 2016-13 does not specify the method for measuring expected credit losses, and an entity is allowed to apply methods that reasonably reflect its expectations of the credit loss estimate. Additionally, the amendments of ASU 2016-13 require that credit losses on available for sale debt securities be presented as an allowance rather than as a write-down. The amendments of ASU 2016-13 were originally effective for public entities for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019 and for all other entities for periods beginning after December 15, 2020. Issued in November 2019, ASU 2019-10, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, Derivatives and Hedging, and Leases” alters the effective date of ASU 2016-13 for private companies.  Under the provisions of ASU 2019-10, ASU 2016-13 is now effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022 including interim periods within those years for non-public business entities.  Earlier application is permitted for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Management has elected to adopt this ASU using the updated private company effective date and is currently evaluating the impact this ASU will have on the consolidated financial statements and that evaluation will depend on economic conditions and the composition of the Company’s loan and lease portfolio at the time of adoption.

ASU 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842).” Issued in February 2016, ASU 2016-02 was issued by the FASB to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and by disclosing key information about leasing arrangements.  ASU 2016-02 will, among other things, require lessees to recognize a lease liability, which is a lessee’s obligation to make lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis; and a right-of-use asset, which is an asset that represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term. ASU 2016-02 does not significantly change lease accounting requirements applicable to lessors; however, the ASU contains some targeted improvements that are intended to align, where necessary, lessor accounting with the lessee accounting model and with the updated revenue recognition guidance issued in 2014.  The amendments of ASU 2016-02 are effective for public entities for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and for other entities for periods beginning after December 15, 2019.  The adoption of this ASU will result in an increase to the Consolidated Balance Sheets for right-of-use assets and associated lease liabilities for operating leases in which the Company is the lessee.  Under current accounting standards, all of the Company's leases are classified as operating leases and, as such, are not recognized on the Company's Consolidated Balance Sheet.  Additionally, in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-10, Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases and ASU No. 2018-11, Leases, Targeted Improvements. The amendments in these updates provide additional clarification and implementation guidance on certain aspects of ASU 2016-02 and have the same effective and transition requirements as ASU 2016-02. Specifically, ASU 2018-11 creates an additional transition method option allowing entities to record a cumulative effect adjustment to opening retained earnings in the year of adoption.  In December 2018, the FASB further issued ASU 2018-20, Leases (Topic 842) Narrow-Scope Improvements for Lessors.  The amendments in this update permits lessors to make an accounting policy election to not evaluate whether certain sales taxes and other similar taxes are lessor costs or lessee costs and instead account for the costs as if they were lessee costs.  Additionally, the amendment requires lessors to exclude from variable payments, and therefore revenue, lessor costs paid by lessees directly to third parties. The amendments also require lessors to account for costs excluded from the consideration of a contract that are paid by the lessor and reimbursed by the lessee as variable payments.  In March 2019, the FASB also issued ASU 2019-01, Leases (Topic 842) Codification Improvements, to further clarify certain identified issues regarding implementation of ASU 2016-02.  Specifically, the amendments in ASU 2019-01 clarify the determination of fair value of underlying assets by lessors that are not manufacturers or dealers, the cash flow presentation of sales-type or direct financing leases, and transition disclosures for interim periods.  Issued in November 2019, ASU 2019-10, “Financial Instruments-Credit Losses, Derivatives and Hedging, and Leases” alters the effective date of ASU 2016-02 for private companies.  Under the provisions of ASU 2019-10, ASU 2016-02 is now effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020 including interim periods within those years for non-public business entities.  Management will adopt these ASUs using the private company effective date of January 1, 2021 using the modified retrospective approach. The Company does not anticipate using any optional practical expedients in conjunction with adoption. Based upon an analysis performed, Management estimates that the right of use asset and corresponding lease liability at adoption will be between $6.0 million and $6.4 million.